Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Tuesday, 10 July 2012


 adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or pronoun's referent. Collectively, adjectives form one of the traditional English eight parts of speech, though linguists today distinguish adjectives from words such as determiners that also used to be considered adjectives.
Not all languages have adjectives, but most, including English, do. (English adjectives include big, old, and tired, among many others.) Those that do not, typically use words of another part of speech, often verbs, to serve the same semantic function; for example, such a language might have a verb that means "to be big", and would use a construction analogous to "big-being house" to express what English expresses as "big house". Even in languages that do have adjectives, one language's adjective might not be another's; for example, while English uses "to be hungry" (hungry being an adjective).
In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order. The adjective order in English is generally;
  1. opinion
  2. size
  3. age
  4. shape
  5. color
  6. origin
  7. material
  8. purpose
So, in English, adjectives pertaining to size precede adjectives pertaining to age ("little old", not "old little"), which in turn generally precede adjectives pertaining to color ("old white", not "white old"). So, we would say "A nice (opinion) little (size) old (age) white (color) brick (material) house". However, some native speakers will say, "a big, ugly desk" (size, opinion) instead of "an ugly, big desk" (opinion, size).


A Preposition is a word used for showing in what relation one thing stands to another thing.
The Noun on Noun-equivalent that comes after a preposition is called its Object.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."
Each of the highlighted words in the following sentences is a preposition:
The children climbed the mountain without fear.
In this sentence, the preposition "without" introduces the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed


Interjections are words used to express strong feeling or sudden emotion. They are included in a sentence usually at the start to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm.
The meaning of an interjection might be expressed by a parenthetical sentence.


“My son (I am sorry to say) died yesterday”.
Observe that a sentence substituted for an interjection is always parenthetial.The sentence “I am sorry to say” is as completely isolated from the sentence “My son died yesterday” by the parenthesis as the Interjection “alas!” is isolated from it by its own nature.


A conjunction is a word used for showing in what relation one notion to another notion, or one thought to another thought.
Take such examples as the following:
1)      He is a humble minded and contected man.
2)      We admire the character of a poor, but honest, man.
3)      That man is disliked, because he is ill-tempered.

In the examples:
  1) the notion of humility expressed by “humble minded” is connected (in the sense of
addition) with the notion of contentment expressed by “contented”.The one notion is
simply added to the other.The Conjunction used for this purpose is “and”.

2) the notion of poverty expressed by “poor” is connected with the notion of honestly
expressed by “honest”.The one notion is contrasted with the other.The conjunction used
for this sentence is put.

3) the thought expresses by the sentence “he is ill-tempered” is connected (in the sense of
cause or reason) with the thought expressed by the sentence “that man is disliked”.The
one thought is given as the reason for the other.


An adverb is a word that extends the meaning and narrows the application of any part of speech except a Nouns or Pronoun.Examples:
      1.            With verb             : I much admire his industry.
      2.            With adjective     : He is deservedly successful.
      3.            With preposition : The body floated partly above and partly above and partly below
        The water.
      4.            With conjunction   : He was despired, merely because he was poor.
In the examples:
1) the Verb “admire” is qualified by the Adverb “much”.
 2) the adjective “successful” is qualified by the Adverb “desevedly”.
 3) the Preposition “above” is qualified by the Adverb “partly” ; and the preposition “below” by the same Adverb.